Política de associação: Aberta
Criado em: 16 Mar 2007
Política de associação: Aberta
Criado em: 16 Mar 2007
For string quartet lovers.
The Juilliard String Quartet performing, 1963
Important string quartets
The form first came to be used after the middle of the 18th century. Joseph Haydn's first works for string quartet have five movements and resemble the divertimento (a title which they carried in some editions) or serenade, but the opus 9 quartets of 1769–70 are in the form which was to become standard both for Haydn and for other composers: four movements; a fast movement, a slow movement, a minuet and trio and a fast finale (see below). Because his example helped codify a form that originated in the Baroque suite, Haydn is often referred to as "the father of the string quartet." Haydn occasionally played his quartets on social occasions in an impromptu quartet ensemble of which Mozart was also a member.
Ever since Haydn's day the string quartet has been prestigious and considered a true test of the composer's art. This may be partly because the palette of sound is more restricted than with orchestral music, forcing the music to stand more on its own rather than relying on tonal color; or from the inherently contrapuntal tendency in music written for four equal instruments.
Quartet composition flourished in the Classical era, with both Mozart and Beethoven writing famous series of quartets to set alongside Haydn's. A slight slackening in the pace of quartet composition occurred in the 19th century; here, a curious phenomenon was seen in composers who wrote only one quartet, perhaps to show that they could fully command this hallowed genre. With the onset of the Modern era of classical music, the quartet returned to full popularity among composers, and played a key role in the development of Arnold Schoenberg, Bela Bartók, and Dmitri Shostakovich especially. Most recently, the quartets of Elliot Carter, which span the length of his long and illustrious career, have been highly admired.
The main form for the string quartet was set out by Haydn:
* 1st movement: Sonata Form, Allegro, in the tonic key;
* 2nd movement: Slow, in the subdominant key;
* 3rd movement: Minuet and Trio, in the tonic key;
* 4th movement: Sonata-Rondo form, in the tonic key.
In the 19th century and onwards, this structure, tonal and otherwise, was increasingly abandoned.
Some of the most popular or widely acclaimed works for string quartet written between the 18th century and the 1980s, include:
* Joseph Haydn's 68 string quartets, in particular the six quartets Op. 33 and the six late Erdody Quartets, Op. 76.
* Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's 23 string quartets, in particular the six quartets dedicated to Haydn (K. 387, 421, 428, 458, 464, 465) are often considered to be among the best of the "classical" quartet form
* The sixteen quartets of Ludwig van Beethoven are highly acclaimed and considered the most perfect among string quartets. The String Quartets Nos. 1-6, Opus 18 are thought to demonstrate his total mastery of the classical string quartet as developed by Haydn and Mozart. The next three, the Razumovsky Quartets greatly expanded the form and incorporated a new degree of emotional sensitivity and drama. These were followed by Opus 74 "Harp" and Opus 95 "Serioso". Finally, the late quartets, which include his last five quartets and the Große Fuge, are the composer's last completed works. Though these works are widely considered to be among the greatest musical compositions ever written, their uncompromising intellectual complexity and their apparent rejection of the romantic pathos which pervades Beethoven's middle period both ensure that they remain considerably less popular than the Razumovsky quartets.
* Franz Schubert's string quartets No. 13 in A Minor "Rosamunde", No. 14 in D Minor "Death and the Maiden" and his final No. 15 in G Major.
* Felix Mendelssohn's six string quartets.
* Robert Schumann's three string quartets.
* Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's String Quartet No. 1 in D Major, Op. 11, known for its second movement "Andante cantabile".
* Bedřich Smetana's String Quartet No. 1 in E Minor "From my Life".
* Johannes Brahms's three string quartets.
* Antonín Dvořák's String Quartet No. 12 in F Major "American".
* Alexander Borodin's String Quartet No. 2 in D Major, known for its third movement "Notturno".
* Giuseppe Verdi's only string quartet
* Claude Debussy's only String Quartet in G Minor, op. 10.
* Hugo Wolf's Italian Serenade (he also arranged it for string orchestra)
* Arnold Schoenberg's four string quartets.
* Maurice Ravel's only String Quartet in F Major.
* Jean Sibelius's String Quartet in D minor "Voces intimae", Op.56.
* Wilhelm Stenhammar's six string quartets
* Leoš Janáček's String Quartet No. 1 "Kreutzer Sonata", inspired by Tolstoy's The Kreutzer Sonata, which in turn was inspired by Beethoven's Violin Sonata No. 9, the "Kreutzer Sonata".
* Frank Bridge's String Quartet No. 3.
* Béla Bartók's six string quartets.
* Alban Berg's Lyric Suite, originally composed for string quartet.
* Anton Webern's early Five Movements for String Quartet, Op. 5 and later serial String Quartet, op. 28.
* Heitor Villa-Lobos's seventeen string quartets
* Bohuslav Martinů's eight surviving string quartets (Nos. 1-7 and the unnumbered "Three Horsemen") as well as his Concerto for String Quartet and Orchestra.
* Sergei Prokofiev's two string quartets, the String Quartet No. 1 of which was commissioned by the Library of Congress.
* Dmitri Shostakovich's fifteen string quartets, in particular the String Quartet No. 8 in C Minor, Op. 110.
* Elliott Carter's five string quartets are among the most widely acclaimed series in recent years.
* Samuel Barber's String Quartet Op. 11, known for its second movement, which is commonly heard in its string orchestra arrangement, the Adagio for Strings.
* György Ligeti's String Quartet No. 2 from 1968.
* Witold Lutosławski's String Quartet from 1964
* Henri Dutilleux's String Quartet Ainsi la Nuit from 1976.
* Luigi Nono's String Quartet Fragmente-Stille, An Diotima from 1980
* Robert Simpson's 15 String Quartets, including No.9 '32 Variations and a Fugue on a Theme of Haydn', where each variation, like the original theme, is a palindrome.
* Philip Glass' five string quartets.
* Peter Maxwell Davies' ten Naxos Quartets.
* Iannis Xenakis' ST/4 from 1962
List of string quartets:
This is a list of recognized string quartets, in alphabetical order.
* Aeolian Quartet * Alban Berg Quartet * Alani Quartet * Alberni Quartet * Allegri Quartet * Alexander Quartet * Amadeus Quartet * Amati Quartet * American String Quartet * Angeles String Quartet * Arditti Quartet * Ariel String Quartet * Armadillo String Quartet * Australian String Quartet * Avalon Quartet * Aviv String Quartet * Balanescu Quartet * Belcea Quartet * Bergonzi Quartet * Borodin Quartet * Borromeo String Quartet * Brandis Quartet * Brentano Quartet * Brodsky Quartet * Budapest Quartet * Busch Quartet * Carmine Quartet * Cavani Quartet * Chiara Quartet * Ciurlionis String Quartet * Claring Chamber Players * Cleveland Quartet * Clinton String Quartet * Chilingirian Quartet * Colorado Quartet * Corigliano Quartet * Corvinus Quartet * Covington Quartet * Coull Quartet * Crystal Palace Quartet * Cypress Quartet * Dannreuther Quartet * Delme Quartet * Del Sol Quartet * Duke Quartet * Edinburgh Quartet * Endellion Quartet * Emerson String Quartet * Fern Hill Quartet * Festetics String Quartet * Fine Arts Quartet * The Four Strings Quartet * Fitzwilliam Quartet * Flonzaley Quartet * Flux Quartet * Four Strings Quartet * Gabrieli Quartet * Grainger Quartet (Australia) * Griller Quartet * Guarneri Quartet * Hagen Quartet * Hollywood String Quartet * Hugo Wolf Quartet * Hungarian Quartet * Janáček Quartet * Jerusalem Quartet * Juilliard String Quartet * Kodály Quartet * Kolisch Quartet * Kopelman Quartet * Kronos Quartet * Kuchl Quartet * Laclede Quartet * Lasalle Quartet * Leningrad Taneiev Quartet * Lindsay Quartet * Maggini Quartet * Mandelring Quartet * Manor House Music String Quartet * Marian Anderson String Quartet * Medici Quartet * Melos Quartet * Mendelssohn Quartet * Miró Quartet * New York String Quartet * New Zealand String Quartet * Orford Quartet * Orion String Quartet * Orlando Quartet * Oslo String Quartet * Pacifica Quartet * Pavao Quartet * Peterson Quartet * Prague Quartet * Puddles Quartet * Quartet-X * Quartet de Barcelona * Quartetto Italiano * Quatuor Arpeggione * Quatuor Diotima * Quatuor Mosaïques * Rosamunde Quartett * Sacconi Quartet * Salomon Quartet * Section Quartet * Serenoa String Quartet * Shanghai String Quartet * Shaw Strings * Silesian String Quartet * Smetana Quartet * Skampa Quartet * Smith Quartet * Solaris Quartet * St. Lawrence Quartet * The String Quartet Tribute * Takács Quartet * Talich Quartet * Tchaikovski Quartet * Tokyo String Quartet * Trabuco String Quartet * Turtle Island String Quartet * RTÉ Vanbrugh Quartet * Vegh Quartet * Vermeer Quartet * Vertavo String Quartet * Vertigo String Quartet * Ysaÿe Quartet * Ying Quartet * Zagreb Quartet * Zorian Quartet
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